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電動汽車--升級了,升級了!(下)

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The first EV to use an 800v drive system was the Porsche Taycan, a luxury sports saloon. This was launched in 2019. According to Porsche, by using a fast-charger the Taycan's huge 93kwh battery can, in a little more than five minutes, gather enough juice for the car to travel 100km.

第一款使用800v驅動系統的電動汽車是保時捷Taycan,一款豪華運動轎車。該項目於2019年啓動。保時捷稱,通過使用快速充電器,Taycan的93kwh巨大電池可以在5分鐘多一點的時間內收集足夠的電力,使汽車行駛100公里。

Two South Korean producers, Hyundai and its partner Kia, launched their first 800v vehicles this year. Kia says the 77kwh battery in its EV6, which went on sale on August 2nd, can be recharged from 10% to 80% in 18 minutes. (The last 20% of capacity is charged at a slower rate in most EVs, to prevent damage to the battery. Hence a full recharge is typically carried out overnight on a standard charger.) Others have 800v vehicles in the works, too. They include General Motors, Volvo, BYD and Stellantis (a large shareholder in which, for full disclosure, also has a stake in The Economist's parent company).

兩家韓國製造商,現代及其合作伙伴起亞,今年推出了他們的第一輛800v電動汽車。起亞表示,8月2日上市的EV6的77kwh電池可以在18分鐘內充電10%到80%。(在大多數電動汽車中,為防止對電池造成損壞,最後20%的電量會以較慢的速度充滿。因此,一次完整的充電通常會用標準的充電器在夜間進行充電。)其他公司也在生產800v的汽車。這些公司包括通用汽車、沃爾沃、比亞迪和斯特蘭提斯(充分披露:該公司的大股東還持有《經濟學人》母公司的股份)。

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Turning an EV's battery from a 400v to an 800v system is fairly straightforward. Principally, it involves wiring up more of the battery's cells in series. But the associated electronics need additional re-engineering. The main reason why the current generation of EVS use 400v is that semiconductors able to handle higher voltages have not been readily available.

將一輛電動汽車的電池從400v系統轉向800v系統相當簡單。主要就是將更多的電池單元串聯起來,不過相關電子設備需要額外進行重新設計。目前使用400v電動汽車的主要原因是沒有能夠承受更高電壓的半導體。

Now that EV sales are growing strongly, though, specialist chipmakers are investing in semiconductors that can operate at 800v. Instead of using transistors made from pure silicon, those employed by these chips are made from silicon carbide, which is more robust. Safety systems in vehicles, such as automated circuit breakers which isolate the battery in the EVent of a crash, also need to be upgraded.

不過,隨着電動汽車銷量強勁增長,專業芯片製造商正在投資800伏特的半導體。這些芯片使用的晶體管由更堅固的碳化硅而非純硅製成。汽車的安全系統,如在發生碰撞時隔離電池的自動斷路器,也需要升級。

What all this means is that, as more 800v EVS come onto the market, and batteries continue to improve with increased capacity, more motorists are likely to be persuaded to go electric. Much, however, will depend on the availability of fast-charging infrastructure. If stations are easy to find, and topping up batteries takes only the amount of time required to pick up a coffee, then the malady of range anxiety will at last be laid to rest.

這一切意味着,隨着更多的800v電動汽車進入市場,電池容量不斷提高,更多的司機可能會被説服選擇電動汽車。然而,這在很大程度上取決於快速充電基礎設施的可用性。如果充電站隨處可見,而給電池充電只需要買一杯咖啡所需的時間,那麼“里程焦慮”這一疾病最終將得到緩解。

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